Last week, I visited the Botswana chapter of the South African Federation for the Disabled, SAFOD. SAFOD is an organization that supports disabled people in 10 countries in southern Africa, and the Botswana chapter is called BOFOD. They are currently working on the “AT-Info-Map,” a three-year project to develop a smartphone app with information about all the assistive technologies (AT) available in the country. It will be released to Batswana users in a year or two and ultimately made available in the other member countries as well (Angola, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe).
I met with Mr. Chiwaula and Mr. Kayange at the BOFOD office in Gaborone to learn more about AT-Info-Map. The app, aimed towards disabled people and their caretakers or other stakeholders, will inform users of the location, availability, and cost of the assistive technologies they seek. Assistive tech, AT, includes hearing aids and wheelchairs, as well as tools not often thought of as technologies such as crutches, prosthetics, and glasses.
Mr. Kayange told me that all assistive technology in Botswana is imported from South Africa, Europe, and other areas – there are no local manufacturers. Thus the AT suppliers in Botswana sometimes have minimum order numbers that make it unfeasible for one person to get just one or two crutches, for example. Even though the government would supply those low quantities for free, said Mr. Kayange, the demand is still higher than the government’s supply, and some people still need to purchase their own assistive devices. He said that, as it is, the only people who know where to find reliable assistive technologies are wealthy people with expat connections – people who can order specific devices from abroad if need be. At least with the app, anyone with a smartphone could access the same information.
(Of course, I asked them what happens if people in their target user group don’t have smartphones. They agreed that this is a potential problem – it’s unrealistic to assume that everyone has a smartphone, which SAFOD discussed. They decided that it wasn’t enough of a reason not to make the app; those that do have smartphones will still benefit).
A lot of our conversation centered around the issues of access and awareness – words that came up many times during my time in India. Especially in Botswana, where the population is so sparse, people may live very far away from a hospital or clinic (an access problem) and may have no idea what AT might be relevant to their needs, let alone where to get it (an awareness problem). Mr. Kayange and Mr. Chiwaula told me that the government’s idea of AT is essentially just wheelchairs and crutches. If nothing else, AT-Info-Map could inform people of other types of AT, ultimately increasing demand for better services. The AT-Info-Map app will store usage data such as the most-commonly-searched-for assistive technology, and if that data demonstrates an unaddressed need (for prosthetics, for example), SAFOD could take that data to the ministries and advocate for more government-funded prosthetics.
Without engaging the government, said Mr. Kayange and Mr. Chiwaula, they can’t be successful. In Botswana, probably because the country is so small and centralized, the government is involved in all health endeavors – so it’s crucial to partner with them if a project is going to be sustainable. However, like in most countries, this involves dealing with a lot of slow bureaucracy and government officials who are very cautious about new ideas.
There’s not as much “activity on the ground” as BOFOD would hope, and the status quo for disabled people largely stays the same year after year. Mr. Chiwaula pointed out that, as Botswana is a relatively stable and well-off Southern African country, it’s not a popular recipient of donations. Since international organizations tend to focus their resources on the neediest places, Botswana’s economic advantage has become a disadvantage – because, as Mr. Chiwaula was saying, such donations would still be welcome. This made a lot of sense to me, though it was sad to hear.
SAFOD was able to build the AT-Info-Map by collaborating with Washington University in the US for technology support, the international organization Dimagi for the mobile app design, and AfriNEAD, a network for disability research. Throughout the design process, SAFOD has also consulted with professionals, government officials in the Ministries of Health and Education and the President’s Office, and potential users. They went back and forth with potential users, performing user-centered design by returning to the field with multiple prototypes. Now, they are satisfied with the version they have and will begin deploying the app for use. Mr. Kayange and Mr. Chiwaula told me that their current concerns at the moment are how to get people to use the app once it’s available, as well as how to incentivize AT suppliers and service providers to register their information on the app. I was glad to hear that their final design is the result of several rounds of user feedback – hopefully that’s enough to guarantee a positive response on a more national scale. It will be interesting to see if the availability of AT in Botswana changes at all in the next few years once this app is in use.